Calcification- Calcium beyond the bones

Discussion in 'Women Health' started by PriyaKathirnilavan, Mar 15, 2017.

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  1. PriyaKathirnilavan

    PriyaKathirnilavan Well-Known Member

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    Hi friends,

    Good morning... have a great day... :):)

    கடந்த சில நாட்களாகவே calcification தொடர்பான தகவல்களை தொகுத்து பதிவு செய்ய வேண்டும் வேண்டும் என நினைத்திருந்தேன்... இன்று பதிவு செய்திருக்கிறேன்... என்னுள் இதை பற்றிய விதையிட்டு, தகவல்களை தொகுப்பதற்கு ஊக்கமளித்த செல்வி அக்காவிற்கு என் மனமார்ந்த நன்றிகள்... :):):)... உங்களால் தான் நானும் பற்றி விரிவாக தெரிந்து கொண்டேன்... Thank you so much akka :):)

    நான் இங்கு calcifications தொடர்பான தகவல்களை தொகுத்து கொடுத்துள்ளேன்... கண்டிப்பா தவறவிடாமல் படிங்க...

    இப்பதிவில் calcification என்றால் என்ன... இப்பிரச்சனை ஏற்படுவதற்கான காரணங்கள் மற்றும் காரணிகள், அறிந்து கொள்வதற்கான அறிகுறிகள், தவிர்க்கும் வழிகள், சிகிச்சை முறை தொடர்பான தகவல்கள் அனைத்தையும் [பல்வேறு மருத்துவ வலைதளத்தில் நான் படித்தவற்றை] தொகுத்து கொடுக்க முயற்சித்திருக்கிறேன்.. மேலும் மார்பு மற்றும் கருப்பை சுவர் calcification பற்றி விரிவாக கொடுத்துள்ளேன்... விரைவில் இன்னும் calcifications of arteries and kidney தொடர்பான தகவல்களை சேகரித்து கொடுக்க முயற்சிக்கிறேன்... Thank you :):)

     
  2. PriyaKathirnilavan

    PriyaKathirnilavan Well-Known Member

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    Calcifications

    What is calcification?
    Calcification is a gradual accumulation of calcium in an area of your body tissue. Most of the calcium absorbed by your body ends up in your bones and teeth, where it is most needed. Excess calcium is usually dissolved in the bloodstream for excretion in the urine, but it is normal for a certain amount to collect in an area of the body tissues; this collection of calcium then hardens the tissue.

    Some disorders cause calcium to deposit in places where it does not typically belong. When calcium builds up in places where it doesn’t usually appear, like the coronary arteries or brain and uterus, it is known as calcification. Over time, this can add up and cause problems. You may need treatment to prevent complications if you have this extra calcium buildup.

    Calcification can be the body’s protective response to injury, as well as part of a natural inflammatory reaction to infection, trauma, or autoimmune disorders. Also, tumors (cancerous or noncancerous) can result in calcification within the tumor tissue.

    Calcification becomes a problem when its location, shape or size interferes with the organ function, such as calcifications that harden and block blood vessels in the heart, brain and kidney. For example, with advancing age both the aortic and mitral valves can thicken and develop calcification deposits. This can lead to decreased efficiency in the heart’s pumping ability. Calcifications that are apparent on mammograms may signal the presence of breast cancer, or they may occur with benign breast disease.


    Causes of calcifications:
    Calcification of soft tissue appears to be the method by which the body repairs an internal wound. Calcification usually forms in tissues that have been exposed to injury, surgery, radiation, infection or cysts. The Linus Pauling Institute states that vitamin D toxicity causes an increase in serum calcium levels, which, over time, may lead to calcification of the heart and kidneys. According to a 2008 study published in the “Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology,” patients with chronic kidney disease are at risk of arterial calcification.

    Many factors have been found to play a role in calcification.
    These includes:

    1. Infections
    2. Calcium metabolism disorders that cause hypercalcemia (too much calcium in the blood)
    3. Genetic or autoimmune disorders affecting your skeletal system and connective tissues
    4. Persistent inflammation
    What are the risk factors for abnormal calcification?
    Several factors increase the risk of developing abnormal calcification. Not all people with risk factors will get calcification. Risk factors for calcification include:

    1. Alcoholism
    2. Autoimmune disorders
    3. Genetic history of a calcium metabolism disorder
    4. Internal tissue injuries that cause inflammatory reactions
    Symptoms of calcification:
    Calcification symptoms that may or may not be associated with a disorder of mineral metabolism. At times, any of these symptoms can be severe:

    1. Bone pain
    2. Bone spurs (occasionally visible as lumps under your skin)
    3. Breast mass or lump
    4. Eye irritation or decreased vision
    5. Impaired growth
    6. Increased bone fractures
    7. Muscle weakness or cramping
    8. New deformities such as leg bowing or spine curvature
    9. Progressive weakness
    10. Tartar on your teeth
    Types of calcification
    Calcifications can form in many places throughout your body, including:

    1. Small and large arteries, Heart valves
    2. Brain, where it is known as cranial calcification
    3. Joints and tendons, such as knee joints and rotator cuff tendons
    4. Soft tissues like breasts, uterus walls, muscles, and fat
    5. Kidney, bladder, and gallbladder
    Some calcium buildup is harmless. These deposits are believed to be the body’s response to inflammation, injury, or certain biological processes. However, some calcifications can disrupt organ function and affect blood vessels.

    Diagnosing calcification
    X-rays can help us to find calcifications usually. X-ray tests use electromagnetic radiation to take pictures of your internal organs. X-rays usually cause no discomfort. Your doctor will likely detect any issues with the X-rays right away.

    Sometimes calcium deposits are found in areas of cancer. A calcification is usually tested to rule out cancer as a cause. Your doctor will order a biopsy to collect a tissue sample, often through a fine needle. The sample is then sent to a laboratory for testing. If there aren’t any cancer cells detected, your doctor will label the calcification as benign.
     
  3. PriyaKathirnilavan

    PriyaKathirnilavan Well-Known Member

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    Treating calcification
    Calcification treatment depends on several factors:

    • Where calcium deposits occur
    • Their underlying cause
    • What, if any, complications arise
    Your doctor will require regular follow-up appointments to check for potential complications once calcifications have been found. Minor artery calcifications aren’t considered dangerous. Heart valves can also develop calcifications. In this case, you may need surgery to open or replace the valve if the calcium buildup is severe enough to affect the valve’s function.

    What are the potential complications of calcification?
    Complications of calcification can be serious, particularly when calcification affects the arteries or is present within a cancer. You can help minimize your risk of serious complications by following the treatment plan you and your health care professional design specifically for you. Complications of calcification include:

    1. Deformity
    2. Eye pain and vision loss
    3. Myocardial infarction (heart attack)
    4. Peripheral artery disease
    5. Spread of cancer
    6. Stroke
    Preventing calcifications
    If you’re over 65 years old, see your doctor regularly for blood tests to evaluate your calcium levels, along with other measurements of your body’s functions. If you’re under 65 years old, calcifications can be more common if you were suffering with a heart disease or kidney-related issues. If you are aware of any of these conditions, ask your doctor about getting tested for calcifications.

    Some medications can affect your body’s calcium levels. Cholesterol medication, blood pressure medication, and hormone replacement therapy are common medications that affect how calcium is used in your body.

    If you frequently take calcium carbonate supplements or Tums, you risk raising your calcium to high levels. Problems with the kidney or the four small glands on the back of the thyroid, the parathyroid, can also cause calcium levels in your blood to rise too high.

    The amount of calcium you need per day is based on your age. Talk to your doctor about what dose of calcium is right for you based on your age, gender, and other health issues.

    Smoking is associated with increased calcifications in the heart and major arteries. As smoking is known to be a major risk factor for developing heart disease, these calcifications may also play a role. Overall, quitting smoking will have both short- and long-term benefits, especially for your heart, blood vessels, and brain.

    There is no proven way to prevent calcifications, as they are a result of a variety of biological processes. Quitting smoking and changing diet may impact formation of calcifications, depending on the location. Kidney stones may form less often with certain dietary changes. Talk to your doctor about ways to incorporate a healthy diet into your lifestyle.

    /// There are no pharmaceutical drugs on the market to reduce calcium deposits but magnesium chloride and sodium thiosulfate are useful in preventing and treating unwanted calcification. Together they offer the best way of combating the calcium time bomb going silently and slowly off in uncounted millions of people. The best way to track calcium toxicity is actually through looking at the level of deficiency in magnesium for magnesium controls and counteracts calcium. The average American consumes only 40 percent of the recommended daily allowance of magnesium. This has serious consequences, including death, in many people, according to magnesium expert Dr. Mildred Seelig. Eighty to 90 percent of the U.S. population is magnesium deficient.

    Calcification consists of calcium and phosphorous and is a normal process for building healthy bones and teeth. But it also plays a central role in disease conditions such as strokes and heart attacks./// [read the reference 3]

    References list:

    1. https://www.healthgrades.com/conditions/calcification
    2. WebMD Medical Reference Reviewed by Sujana Movva, MD on October 29, 2014
    3. http://clearwoman.com/perimenopause-age-35-50/calcifications/#getrid
    4. http://drsircus.com/magnesium/calcification-and-its-treatment-with-magnesium-and-sodium-thiosulfate/
    5. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of the Brown Medical School and Women & Infants Hospital of Rhode Island: http://www.brown.edu/Departments/Obstetrics_Gynecology/
    6. University of Wiconsin - Madison: School of Medicine and Public Health: http://www.med.wisc.edu/
     
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  4. PriyaKathirnilavan

    PriyaKathirnilavan Well-Known Member

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    Breast calcifications

    Calcifications in breast tissue are found in about 50% of women over age 50 and 10% of younger women. There are no symptoms; you become aware of them only when mammography reveals white spots or flecks of various shapes and sizes. Most are benign, but some occur in conjunction with breast cancer, so a radiologist must determine whether a biopsy or further testing is needed.
    Benign breast calcifications can form as a response to injury. When any part of the breast is damaged — by surgery, radiation, trauma, infection, or a cyst — fat cells die, releasing fatty acids that combine with calcium to form deposits. For example, calcification may occur along the seat belt line after an accident (see photo) or in an area that has been irradiated to treat breast cancer.

    Breast calcification

    [​IMG]
    This mammogram shows benign calcifications in the breast of a woman who was in a car accident and sustained a seat belt injury.
    Photograph courtesy of Dr. Tanya W. Stephens, M.D., Anderson Cancer Center


    Calcifications can also occur in the glandular tissue where milk is produced (the lobules) and in the ducts that carry milk to the nipple. Even when you're not pregnant or breastfeeding, the lobules secrete small amounts of calcium-containing fluid. If that calcium crystallizes, it may show up on a mammogram. Calcifications in the lobules are sometimes widespread, but almost always benign. Calcifications in the ducts, on the other hand, are occasionally a sign of preinvasive ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS).

    There are several reasons for the connection between calcifications and breast cancer. In DCIS, for example, cancer cells in the center of the ducts can die because they lack access to blood and nutrients, leaving a calcified line along the path of the duct. Calcifications may also be associated with invasive cancer in areas where cancer cells have died, in damaged connective tissue between cancer cells, and in places where DCIS calcifications are present as well.

    In general, microcalcifications (less than 1 mm across) are more suspicious than macrocalcifications (more than 2 mm across), and tightly clustered deposits more so than more dispersed ones. If your doctor believes there's any chance of malignancy, she or he will recommend a biopsy. (The vast majority turn out to be benign.) Other imaging techniques are of limited value in visualizing calcifications.

    Consumption connection? Calcium intake through diet and supplements is not associated with benign breast calcifications. Moreover, a 2009 study of more than 60,000 Swedish women found that greater calcium intake did not raise the risk of breast cancer.

    There are two types of breast calcifications: macrocalcifications and microcalcifications.

    Macrocalcifications look like large white dots on a mammogram (breast X-ray) and are often dispersed randomly within the breast. Macrocalcifications are common -- they are found in approximately half of women over age 50, and one in 10 women under age 50 -- and are considered noncancerous.

    Microcalcifications are small calcium deposits that look like white specks on a mammogram. Microcalcifications are usually not a result of cancer. But if they appear in certain patterns and are clustered together, they may be a sign of precancerous cells or early breast cancer.

    How do I know if I have breast calcifications?

    Breast calcifications do not cause symptoms, as they are too small to be felt during a routine breast exam. Usually, breast calcifications are first noticed on a mammogram.

    A breast biopsy will be recommended if a suspicious area is seen.
    Some patterns are not easy to classify. Doctors call these as indeterminate. In this case, the doctor will consider the patient's age and family history to determine the best course of action. If the risk of cancer is low, a repeat mammogram will be scheduled for a later date to monitor for changes.


    What causes breast calcifications?
    One of the first points to understand is that breast calcifications (http://www.ladycarehealth.com/how-to-prevent- breast-calcifications/) are in no way related to intake of calcium in your diet. Breast calcifications are often caused due to the natural aging process. As one gets old, the body goes through various changes and deterioration. The natural changes in the breast show up as breast calcifications.

    Over a period of time, blunt injury to the breast can lead to formation of calcifications in the breast. Similarly, chronic infection of sebaceous glands and mastitis can also cause breast calcifications. Fibrocystic breast condition is also associated with breast calcifications. If you had radiation therapy in the past, it can lead to the formation of breast calcifications.

    What happens if my doctor finds breast calcifications on my mammogram?
    If you have macrocalcifications, no further testing or treatment is needed, because they are not harmful. If microcalcifications are seen on your mammogram, another mammogram may be performed to get a more detailed look at the area in question. The calcifications will be determined to be either "benign," "probably benign," or "suspicious."

    How are breast calcifications treated?
    ''Benign'' calcifications are considered harmless. No further evaluation or treatment is needed.


    ''Probably benign'' calcifications have a less than 2% risk of being cancer. In other words, more than 98% of the time "probably benign" calcifications are not cancer. Typically, they will be monitored every six months for at least one year. After a year of follow-up, and assuming no new changes are found, your doctor will recommend you have a routine mammogram once a year.

    ''Suspicious'' calcifications may be benign or an early sign of cancer; therefore, your doctor may recommend you have a biopsy. During a biopsy, a small amount of breast tissue containing the calcification is removed and sent to a laboratory to be examined for cancer cells. If cancer is present, treatment may consist of surgery to remove the cancerous breast, radiation, and/or chemotherapy to kill any remaining cancer cells.

    What happens during a breast biopsy?

    Two types of biopsies are used to remove breast calcification tissue for further study, including stereotactic core needle biopsy and surgical biopsy.

    Core needle biopsy: Under local anesthesia (the area is numbed, but you are awake) a radiologist, using a thin, hollow needle and guided by a computer imaging device, will remove a small piece of tissue containing the suspicious calcifications.

    Surgical biopsy: If tissue cannot be successfully removed using a core needle biopsy or the results are unclear, surgery may be needed to get a sample of the calcified breast tissue. A surgeon will perform the biopsy in an operating room under local or general anesthesia. Prior to the surgical procedure, a radiologist will use X-rays to identify the calcified breast tissue and will then mark the tissue to be removed with either a thin wire or with dye. A surgeon will then cut the tissue sample so that it can be sent to a lab for analysis.

    If you have breast calcifications, talk to your doctor about your concerns.

    References:
    1. http://www.health.harvard.edu/womens-health/calcium-beyond-the-bones
    2. http://www.webmd.com/women/guide/breast-calcification-symptoms-causes-treatments
    3. Davidson NE. Breast cancer and benign breast disorders. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine. 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 198.
    4. Hunt KK, Green MC, Buccholz TA. Diseases of the breast. In: Townsend CM Jr, Beauchamp RD, Evers BM, Mattox KL, eds. Sabiston Textbook of Surgery. 19th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2012:chap 36.
    5. James JJ, Wilson RM, Evans AJ. The breast. In: Adam A, Dixon AK, Gillard JH, Schaefer-Prokop CM, eds. Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging. 6th ed. New York, NY: Elsevier; 2015:chap 69.
     
  5. PriyaKathirnilavan

    PriyaKathirnilavan Well-Known Member

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    Uterus Calcification:

    Calcification of the uterus is when calcium deposits accumulate on the walls of the uterus. Sometimes scarring from IUDs or from previous surgeries causes uterus calcification. Hyaline degeneration that supplies its own blood supply can lead up to calcification formation. The calcification that forms on the wall can be thin; however can grow into fibroid like tumors or cysts. It can also spread to other parts of the uterus.


    [​IMG]

    Symptoms?
    The symptoms may include bleeding more than usual or heavier periods. Some bleeding may occur following or during intercourse. This would all depend on the severity of the condition.
    Cramping is another symptom of uterine calcification. The severity of cramping can be mild to severe. Some patients may not experience cramping at all. However, they may experience mild to severe pain occasionally. Some women have experienced pain during and after intercourse. Sometimes to the extent, that intercourse is too painful.

    Diagnosis
    It is important for women to have annual checkups with their gynecologist. However, if the patient experiences symptoms such as bleeding, cramping, and pain, it is recommended to schedule an early appointment to see the doctor. This would also include if they are experiencing painful intercourse.
    This condition is usually diagnosed by a gynecologic exam, followed by a CAT scan, MRI, and laboratory test from cultures taken from the uterus during the examination. The gynecologist can then determine and verify if the patient's symptoms are caused by calcification.

    Treatment:
    The treatment of this condition would be treated depending on the severity of the symptoms and the stage of the condition itself. Medications may be given in milder cases. Pain medications may be prescribed for pain relief. For more severe cases, surgery may be necessary. For some women, a hysterectomy may be necessary. The patient's history and family history, along with the test results will help the physician determine whether surgery is needed or not. Calcification of the uterus that goes untreated, could lead up to fibroid like tumors that could eventually lead to uterine cancer. That is why most physicians take this condition very serious. However, it is important to note that not all calcification leads up to cancer. Sometimes it can lead up to noncancerous fibroid tumors. Either, which can lead up to surgery and can be just as painful.

    Summary:
    It is very important to have this condition diagnosed by a physician. There are other conditions that have similar symptoms, and these conditions would need to be ruled out by a physician. Regular gynecological exams can help in early detection of uterine calcification and other conditions. Women need to be in tune with their bodies, and when anything unusual is questionable, schedule an appointment with their doctors. It has been proven that women, who report the symptoms to their doctor as soon as they occur, are able to receive treatment in the early stages of serious conditions such as uterine cancer.


    References:
    1. http://www.healthguideinfo.com/uterine-fibroids/p84035/
    2. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of the Brown Medical School and Women & Infants Hospital of Rhode Island: http://www.brown.edu/Departments/Obstetrics_Gynecology/
    3. University of Wiconsin - Madison: School of Medicine and Public Health: http://www.med.wisc.edu/
    4. Indiana University: http://library.medicine.iu.edu/audience-container/faculty-and-residents/ob-gyn/
     
  6. mithravaruna

    mithravaruna Well-Known Member

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    Thank you priya. for collecting very very useful information. Thanks for sharing
     
  7. liza

    liza New Member

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    Hai Priya,
    Very useful information.
    Thanks for sharing.
     
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  8. Madhini jayakumar

    Madhini jayakumar Member

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    Hi priya
    Thanks ma indha payanulla thagavaluku ellorum theringichika vendiya vishayam ma vizhipunarvu avasiyam thevvai nambaloda udambil enna enna maatrangal eppadi yerpaduthunu purinchikiten oru small request intha post tamizhilum neenga kodutha nalla irukum nannum innum konjam aarvama padipen.
     
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  9. PriyaKathirnilavan

    PriyaKathirnilavan Well-Known Member

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    thank you akka... உங்க மூலமா தான் எனக்கு இந்நோயை பற்றி தகவல்களை சேகரிக்க வேண்டும் என்ற எண்ணம் வந்தது... :):)
     
  10. PriyaKathirnilavan

    PriyaKathirnilavan Well-Known Member

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    Thank you akka... சரியாக சொன்னீர்கள்... எல்லோருக்கும் இந்நோய் தொடர்பான விழிப்புணர்வு அவசியம் வரவேண்டும்...

    நான் முதலில் தமிழில் தான் தேடினேன்... வருத்தம் என்னவென்றால் தமிழில் இந்நோய் தொடர்பான தகவல்கள் எனக்கு கிடைக்கவில்லை... அதனால் தான் ஆங்கிலத்தில் பதிவு செய்திருக்கிறேன் அக்கா... நான் இம்மருத்துவ தகவல்களை தமிழில் மொழிபெயர்த்தால் அது எவ்வளவு தூரம் சரியாக வரும் என்று தெரியவில்லை... இருந்தாலும் முயற்சி செய்கிறேன் அக்கா...:):)
     

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